Only indefinite/Simple form of the Infinitive has the corresponding form in Russian.

THE INFINITIVE

1. The functions of the infinitive:

(a) as the subject of a sentence. To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy)

(b) as a predicative. Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the night. (Hardy)

(c) as an object.I have never learnt to read or write. (Collins)

2. The forms of the Infinitive:

Active Passive
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to write to be writing to have written to have been writing To be written ----- To have been written ----- I am glad to meet you. He pretended to be sleeping. I'm glad to have seen you," he said. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam.

Only indefinite/Simple form of the Infinitive has the corresponding form in Russian.


The Bare Infinitive

After auxiliary verbs I don’t know her. We shall go.
After modal verbs I can’t do it. You must consult the doctor.
In Complex Object construction I saw him enter the house. I felt my heart jump. but the child was made to obey (Passive Voice)
After the verb let Let’s go. If he calls, let me know.
After the verbs need, dare, make if they are used as modals Need I do the washing up? How dare you call me a liar? What makes you think so?
After had better, would rather/sooner, cannot but He said he would rather stay at home. You had better go there at once. I can’t but think about it.
After than, rather than, but, except I’ll do anything but work with children. Rather than walk for half an hour, I’ll take a taxi.

Match the Russian and English equivalents and REMEMBER!!

Ему трудно угодить. У нее привлекательная внешность. Мне надо вам кое-что сказать. Этим ничего не достигнешь. Ничего не поделаешь. Надо многое сделать. Дом сдается внаем. Кто виноват? Непременно приходите. Единственное, что остается – это ждать. There is nothing to be gained by it. The house is to let. There is nothing left to do but wait. He is hard to please. There is nothing to be done. Be sure to come. She is pleasant to look фею There is much to be done. I have something to tell you. Who is to blame?

Parenthesis

to begin with to name a few to put it simply to be exact to quote
to judge by to put it another name needless to say to say the least to return
to make a long story short to put it briefly to say nothing of so to speak to take an example
to mention only some to put it mildly suffice it to say to sum up to tell the truth

Ex. 1. (A, B) Replace the group of words in bold type by an infinitive.

Model: She was the first lady who left.She was the first (lady) to leave.

1. The manager was the last who leftthe shop. 2.1 was astonished when I heardthat he had left his native town. 3. There was no place where hecould sit. 4. I can't go to the party; I have nothing that Ican wear. 5. He was the first man whoswam the Channel. 6. He was the only one who realizedthe danger.

Ex. 2. (A, B) Combine each of the following parts of sentences into one sentence using an infinitive.

Model: They sent me to University, they wanted me to study law.

They sent me to University to study law.

1. I am buying bread. I want to feed the bird. 2. He opened the door. He intended to go out. 3. He rushed into the burning house. He wanted to save the child. 4. He rang the bell. He wanted to tell us that the dinner was ready. 5. The farmer shot the rifle. He wanted to frighten the birds. 6. He sent his children to his sister's house. He wanted them to watch the television programme. 7. I am saving up. I want to buy a car. 8. I keep my hens in a field grounded by wire netting. I want to protect them against the foxes.

Ex. 3. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "enough" with the Infinitive.

Model: He is clever. He can answer the question.



1. He is clever enough to answer the question. 2. He wasn't strong. He couldn't support the man. 2. It isn't very hot. We can't lie in the sun. 3. The coffee isn't strong. It won't keep us awake. 4. I am quite old. I could be your father. 5. You aren't very old. You can't understand these things. 6. He was very curious. He opened the letter. 7. You are quite thin. You can wear this dress.

Ex. 4. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "too" with the Infinitive.

Model: He is very ill. He can't work today. He is too ill to work today.

1. It is very hot. We can't run. 2. I am rather old. I can't wear this dress. 3. He was nervous. He couldn't speak. 4. I was terrified. I couldn't move. 5. It is very cold. We can't have a swim. 6. He was very snobbish. He wouldn't talk to any of us. 7. It was very dark. We couldn't go out into the garden. 8. It was rather cloudy. We couldn't see the eclipse properly.

Ex. 5. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "so as/in order" with the Infinitive.

Model: He took oft his boots. He didn't want to make any noise.

He took off his boots so as/in order not to make any noise.

1. He was playing very softly. He didn't want to disturb anyone. 2. I sent him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with his headmaster. 3. I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer. 4. He sent his children to their aunt's house. He wanted to have some peace. 5. He read only for short periods each day. He didn't want to strain his eyes. 6. They got up very early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill before sunrise. 7. We must keep our gloves on. We don't want to get frostbitten.

Ex. 6. (A, B) Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets.

1. I hope (to see) you soon. 2. We expect (to be) back in two days. 3. He expected (to help) by his friends. 4. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday. 5. I am sorry (to break) my pen. 6. I hate (to bother) you, but the students are still waiting (to give) books for their work. 7. He seized every opportunity (to appear) in public: he was so anxious (to talk) about... 8. Is there anything else (to tell) her? I believe she deserves (to know) the state of her sick brother. 9. He began writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. 10. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the bell. 11. Perhaps it would upset her (to tell) the truth of the matter. 12. The only sound (to hear) was the snoring of grandfather in the bedroom.

I. (A, B)

I. He made me (to do) it all over again. 2. He made her (to repeat) the message. 3. Would you like me (to go) now? 4. They won't let us (to leave) the Customs till our luggage has been examined. 5. He wouldn't let my baby (to play) with his gold watch. 6. Please let me (to know) your decision as soon as possible. 7. He made us (to wait) for hours. 8. I let him (to go) early as he wanted to meet his wife. 9. I'd like him (to go) to a university but I can't make him (to go). 10. He tried to make me (to believe) that he was my stepbrother. 11. Before he let us (to go) he made us (to promise) not to tell anybody what we had seen. 12. I advised him (to ask) the bus-conductor to tell him where to get off. 13. That is too heavy for one person (to carry); let me (to help) you. 14. The teacher advised us (to use) dictionaries. 15. Her father doesn't allow her (to go) to the cinema alone. 16. Who told the nurse (to give) the sick man this medicine? 17. The old man doesn't like his grandchildren (to make) a lot of noise when they are playing. 18. The gardener won't let the children (to pick) the flowers.



II.(В, С)

1. I hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite answer. 2. He hated (to bother) with trifling matters when he had many more important questions (to decide). 3. She would never miss a chance (to show) her efficiency, she was so anxious (to like) and (to praise). 4. The idea was too complicated (to express) in just one paragraph. 5. Is there anything else (to tell) him? I believe he deserves (to know) how the matter stands and (to tell) all about it. 6. He took to writing not (to earn) a living but a name. All he wanted was (to read) and not (to forget). 7. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so much of it. 8. The girl pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me. 9. It seems (to rain) ever since we came here. 10. It is so thoughtful of you (to book) the tickets well in advance. 11. Perhaps it would bother him (to speak) about the quarrel. 12. The only sound (to hear) was the ticking of the grandfather clock downstairs. 13. The third key remained (to test). 14. She was probably angry (to reprimand) in front of me. 15. She sat there trying to pretend she did not want (to dance) and was quite pleased (to sit) there and (to watch) the fun. 16. She was sorry (to be) out when I called and promised (to wait) for me downstairs afterthe office hours. 17. She said she would love (to come) and was simply delighted (to ask) for a date. 18. I offered (to carry) her case but she was afraid (to let) it out of her hand. 19. Let's go and see the place. You will be sorry later (to miss) it.

Ex. 8. (C) Insert the Infinitive in the appropriate form and translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Mr Abbot was the first... the silence. (to break). 2. The next patient... was a nice girl in her early 'teens, (to examine). 3. Honesty is the first principle ... when working with us. (to observe). 4. He complained that he was always the last.... (to inform). 5. I am the last man … a question of the kind. (to ask). 6. They were among the last.... (to arrive). 7. He found that he was the only one ...the discrepancy. (to notice). 8. If there is to be a vacancy I would |ike to be the one ... the job. (to offer). 9. These houses were among the few ... after a great fire. (to survive). 10. Who was the youngest chess player ... the title of All-Union Champion? (to win). 11. The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre players were the second British company ...the Soviet Union. (to visit). 12. The Nuremberg trial was the biggest international trial … ever... . (to hold).

I (A)

1. I like ... play the piano. 2. My brother can ... write poems. 3. We had ... put on our overcoats because it was cold. 4. They wanted ... cross the river. 5. It is high time for you ... go to bed. 6. May I ... use your telephone? 7. They heard the girl ... cry out with joy. 8. I would rather... stay at home today. 9. He did not want ... play in the yard anymore. 10. Would you like... go to England? 11. You look tired. You had better… go home. 12. I wanted ... speak to Nick, but could not... find his telephone number. 13. It is time ... get up. 14. Let me ... help you with your homework. 15. I was planning ... do a lot of things yesterday. 16. I'd like... speak to you. 17. I think I shall be able ... solve this problem. 18. What makes you ... think you are right? 19. I shall ... do all I can ... help you. 20. I like ... dance. 21. I'd like ... dance. 22. She made me ... repeat my words several times. 23. She did not let her mother ... go away. 24. Do you like ... listen to good music? 25. That funny scene made me ... laugh.

II. (B, C)

1. The boy helped us ... find the way to the railway station. 2. He would sooner... die than ... betray his friends. 3. Why not... start out now? We cannot wait for the rain ... stop. 4. You'll be better tomorrow. You may ... come and ... dine with us. 5. Don't let us ... get worried, There are a hundred things ... be done. 6. We had better... make haste. 7. You ought not... speak to the Dean like that. 8. What made you ... think so? 9. "Thanks," Andrew answered, "I'd rather... seethe cases myself." 10. He was made ... obey the rules. 11.1 thought I would rather... get to the gallery alone, but I was obliged ... accept his company. 12.... have gone through what you have gone through is the lot of very few. 13. Get them ... come as early as possible. 14. There is hardly anything ... do but ...work out an alternative plan.

Ex. 12. (А, В) Translate the sentences into English using the models.

Model 1. to dosmth is (was, will be) necessary (a mistake)

То tellher the truth now is not at all necessary.

(would be a mistake means to ruin her chances)

1. Знать грамматику - значит писать без ошибок. 2. Подумать так было просто смешно, 3. Сказать "да" было невозможно, сказать "нет" было бы невежливо. 4. Объяснить ему, что это такое, было делом трудным. 5. Помогать ей - значит делать все самой. 6. Рассердиться было бы глупо.

Model 2. It is important to do/be done/be doingsmth

□it is necessary to explaineverything to her.

□It was strange to meethim here of all places.

1. Трудно переводить этот текст без словаря. 2. Очень было приятно поговорить с вами. 3. Очень важно, чтобы нас не заметили. 4. Трудно будет объяснить вам это. 5. Приятно быть опять в Москве. 6. Так странно, когда с тобой так разговаривают. 7. Было очень трудно делать вид, что ты все понимаешь. 8. Правда, хорошо сидеть здесь и пить кофе? 9. Ошибаться легко, гораздо труднее понять свою ошибку. 10. Вовсе не нужно все это учить наизусть.

Ex. 13. (А, В) Complete the following sentences by adding the Infinitive to each sentence

Model: 1. Her dream was - to become an actress.

2. What I wanted was - not to be misunderstood.

1. The general idea was - . 2. His hobby is - . 3. The first thing you must do is - . 4. The last thing I meant was - . 5. The main thing is - . 6. The only thing to do was - . 7. Your only chance is - . 8. Your job will be - . 9. My only wish is - . 10. What I want is - .

Ex. 14. (A. B) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Главное - это закончить эксперимент вовремя. 2. Вашей работой будет уход за больными. 3. Моим единственным желанием было добраться до дома. 4. Его хобби - коллекционирование марок. 5. Единственный шанс не опоздать на поезд - это взять такси. 6. Единственный выход из положения - это сейчас же все рассказать.

Ex. 15. (А, В) Translate the sentences using the models.

Model 1: The first (last) to dosmth

She was the first to seethe danger.

He was the second tocross the finish line.

Model 2: smth/smb (nobody) to dosmth

Have you anything else to say?

There was nobody there to showhim the way out.

Model 3: the man (time) to dosmth

He is just the man to doit.

It is not the right time to discussthis subject.

1. He такой это был человек, чтобы предать друга. 2. Ему больше нечего было сказать. 3. Думать было некогда. 4. Кто последним выходил из дома? 5. Я теперь не помню, кто первый это сказал. 6. Дайте мне время подумать. 7. Это свитер, который можно носить с брюками или широкой (full) юбкой. 8. У меня нет времени играть с тобой. 9. У ребенка нет никого, кто мог бы о ней позаботиться. 10. Вы третий человек, который мне это сегодня говорит.

Ex. 16. (А, В) Translate the sentences using the model.

Model: do smth (in order/so as) to getsmth

I have come here to speakto you,

She pretended to be quite well not to be takento the doctor.

1. Он бежал всю дорогу, чтобы успеть (catch) на поезд. 2. Он принес в класс карту, чтобы показать нам маршрут экспедиции. 3. Они всю ночь жгли костер, чтобы их заметили проходящие мимо (pass by) суда. 4. Мальчики стояли во дворе и не уходили, чтобы их тоже взяли с собой. 5. Я еще раз прочел письмо, чтобы лучше его понять. 6. Я все это говорю, чтобы меня правильно поняли. 7. Она ничего не рассказала, чтобы ее не наказали (punish).

Ex. 17. (А, В) Complete the following sentences using the model. Give several variants where possible.

Model: (too)young (enough) to dosmth

You are too young to wearblack.

She's old enough to be takenfor his mother.

1. Who of us is brave enough - ? 2. The weather is much too fine - . 3. You are old enough - . 4. She's too young and pretty - . 5. The story is much too long - . 6. The problem is too complicated - . 7. The trouble is too deep-rooted - . 8. She's just not clever enough - . 9. She was by far too clever - . 10. Do you know him well enough - ? 11. I was going too I fast -.12. She spoke English well enough - .

Ex. 18. (A, B) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

I

1. Я не настолько хорошо себя чувствую, чтобы встать с постели. 2. Она достаточно хорошо говорит по-английски, чтобы не нуждаться в переводчике. 3. Рано читать тебе такие книги. (Ты слишком молод). 4. Я стоял слишком далеко, чтобы слышать, что она говорит. 5. Слишком она молода, чтобы принимать ее всерьез. 6. Вопрос слишком сложен, чтобы на него сразу ответить. 7. Слишком он ленив. Не читал он книги в подлиннике. 8. Задача слишком сложна, чтобы ее уже решили. 9. Ты теперь слишком большая, чтобы играть в куклы.

II

Model: She is nice to workwith.

His story was hard to prove.

1. С ним трудно разговаривать. 2. С ним приятно иметь дело (deal with). 3. Его рассказу трудно поверить. 4. Птицу было очень трудно поймать. 5. С вами сегодня легко разговаривать. 6. Эту книгу невозможно достать. 7. С ним опасно ссориться. 8. Результаты невозможно проверить. 9. Этому легко поверить. 10. Ее нелегко было остановить. 11. На нее приятно было смотреть.

I.(A,B)

I. Этому трудно поверить. 2. Он достаточно хорошо знает грамматику, чтобы не делать таких ошибок. 3. Вопрос слишком сложен, чтобы его сразу решить. 4. Я принес книгу, чтобы показать вам эту фотографию. 5. Слишком жарко, чтобы идти гулять. 6. Он говорит о новом здании школы, которое будет построено в их селе. 7. У меня нет времени читать такие книги. 8. Ну, я рад, что сдал этот экзамен. 9. Правило легко понять. 10. Необходимо пойти туда сегодня. 11. Кошку нелегко было поймать.

II.(В, С)

1. Он требовал, чтобы ему предоставили возможность доказать это. 2. Она попросила, чтобы ей разрешили осмотреть новый цех (workshop). 3. Я прошу, чтобы меня выслушали. 4. Он сказал, чтобы ничего никому не давали без его разрешения. 5. Мы потребовали, чтобы нам дали выслушать всех очевидцев (witnesses). 6. Они попросили рассказать им о случившемся. 7. Я попросил разрешения остановиться (stay with) y них на несколько дней. 8. Почему вы не потребовали, чтобы вам дали копию документа? 9. Он попросил, чтобы ему дали прочесть это письмо.

REVISION

Ex. 20. (А, В) Complete the following using the Infinitive.

1. It gives me pleasure ... . 2. It will take you ten minutes ... . 3. It is wise of him ... . 4. It does people a lot of good ... . 5. It won't do you any harm ... . 6. It was natural ... . 7. It has become his habit ... . 8. It surprised me ... . 9. It would never do ... . 10. It must be very nice .... 11. It made me feel awkward ... .

Ex. 21. (A, B) Complete the following, using the Infinitive, take the Infinitive phrases from \ the list below:

to forget the past, to be humming a tune, to say such a thing to a child, to have gone out о that rainy day, to know the map well

1.... means to be able to show any country or town on it. 2. ... would have been the deafly of me. 3. ... is a usual thing for her. 4. ... would be ridiculous. 5.... was impossible.

Eх. 22. (А, В) Complete the following sentences.

1. Our plan was .... 2. To act like this meant... .3. The first thing he did was ... .4. The main problem is... .5. Our next step must be.... 6. What I want is... .7. Our only chance to see him is ... . 8. To ask him a straight question means ... . 9. The children were anxious ... . 10. We were not afraid.... 11. I pretended not.... 12. They have not decided whether... or not. 113. The boys agreed never ... . 14. Do you care ... ? 15. I was very careful not ... . 16. I wish we had not forgotten .... 17. They thought.... 18. He proposed..., 19. When did you learn ... ? 20. I'll try to remember.... 21. The tourists were lucky .... 22. The father promised ... . 23. They offer... . 24. He attempted ... . 25. We are sorry ... . 26. The boy asked ... .

II

Use the Infinitive as an attribute; take the Infinitive phrases from the following list: to remember, not to be contradicted, to be desired, to speak (to/about), to do, to be done, to follow, to worry about, to be erected, to read, to laugh at, to be answered, to answer.

1. This is just the man .... 2. Packing was the first thing ... .3. Here are some instructions .... 4. The monument... on this square will add beauty to the place. 5. The book leaves much .... 6. There was nothing ... .7. These are the letters.,.. 8. His was the tone ... .9. Have you got anything ... ? 10. She will always find something ....

Ex. 23. (B) Use the appropriate form of the Infinitive in brackets.

1. I am glad (to introduce) to you. 2. The box was (to handle) with care. You should (to ask) someone (to help) you. This might not (to happen). 3. Her mood seems (to change) for the worse. We had better not (to speak) to her now. 4.1 am sorry (to disappoint) you but I did not mean anything of the kind. 5. He is happy (to award) the first Landscape Prize for his picture. 6. He was anxious (to take) the first place in the figure-skating competition. 7. The poem can easily (to memorize). 8. This poem is easy (to memorize). 9. I did not expect (to ask) this question. 10. There were so many things (to do), so many experiments (to try). 11. The teacher expected him (to give) a better answer at the examination. 12. They are supposed (to experiment) in this field for about a year and are believed (to achieve) good results. 13. He must (to read) something funny; he is smiling all the time.

Ex. 24. (A, B) Translate into English, using the appropriate form of the Infinitive.

I

1. Я рад, что дал вам эту книгу. 2. Я рад, что мне дали эту книгу. 3. Мы хотим проинформировать вас об этом. 4. Мы хотим, чтобы нас проинформировали об этом. 5. Мы рады, что встретили его на станции. 6. Мы рады, что нас встретили на станции. 7. Они очень довольны, что их пригласили на конференцию. 8. Они очень довольны, что пригласили вас на конференцию. 9. Я не думал (mean) прерывать ее. 10. Я не предполагал, что меня прервут. 11. Мне неловко, что я причинил вам столько беспокойства. 12. Он будет счастлив повидаться с вами.

II

1. Он был счастлив, что повидался с вами. 2. Он, казалось, подыскивал слова, чтобы точнее выразить мысль. 3. Как ему повезло, что он побывал в такой интересной поездке. 4. Он терпеть не может, когда над ним шутят. 5. Дети любят, когда им рассказывают сказки. 6. Мы притворились, что не заметили его ошибки, 7. Я рад, что рассказал вам эту историю. 8. Я рад, что мне рассказали эту историю. 9. Я хочу познакомить вас с этой артисткой. 10. Я хочу, чтобы меня познакомили с эта артисткой. 11. Он будет счастлив посетить эту знаменитую картинную галерея 12. Он был счастлив, что посетил эту знаменитую картинную галерею. 13. Я рада, что дала вам нужные сведения.

Ex. 25. (В, С) Translate the sentences from Russian into English using:

I. the Infinitive as a subject.

I. Пить из этого источника в жаркий день - одно удовольствие. 2. Сказать ему правду означало лишить его последней надежды. 3. Не предупредить его об этом было бы нечестно. 4. Нам понадобилось немало времени на то, чтобы убедить его, что он неправ. 5. Побывать в Крыму и не видеть моря было очень обидно. 6. Вздремнуть в своем кресле после обеда было его давнишней привычкой. 7. Неплохо бы поехать в город завтра.

II.the Infinitive as a predicative.

1. Наш план заключался в том, чтобы закончить работы к началу мая. 2. Все, что ей удалось сделать, - это узнать номер их телефона. 3. Пользоваться телефоном - значит экономить время. 4. Единственное, что ему хотелось, - это поскорее добраться домой. 5. Первое, что необходимо сделать, - это посоветоваться с врачом.

III. the Infinitive as an object.

1. Они решили больше никогда об этом не упоминать. 2. Мне было досадно, что я забыл поблагодарить его. 3. Где вы научились так хорошо говорить по-английски? 4. Я постараюсь не забыть послать им телеграмму. 5. Клайд был рад познакомиться с друзьями Сандры. 6. Клайд был счастлив, что ему дали новую работу. 7. Клайд очень не любил, когда ему напоминали о бедности его родителей. 8. Мы не боялись попасть под дождь: у нас были плащи. 9. Я притворился, будто не заметил его смущения и продолжал говорить.

IV. the Infinitive as an attribute.

1. Она всегда найдет, над чем посмеяться. 2. Не о чем было беспокоиться. Больной чувствовал себя лучше. 3. Пьеса оставляет желать лучшего. 4. Вот статья, которую надо прочитать. 5. Пятиэтажный дом, который должен быть построен на углу улицы предназначен для рабочих нашего завода. 6. План нашей работы будет обсуждать на заседании, которое состоится завтра. 7. Ему нечего было сказать. 8. Он тяжелый человек; с ним трудно иметь дело. 9. Кто вторым пришел к финишу? 10. Есть ли в доме кто-нибудь, кто мог бы присмотреть за больным? 11. Вот человек, с которым можно поговорить на эту тему.

V. the Infinitive as an adverbial modifier of purpose.

1. Я встал в 6 часов, чтобы не опоздать на утренний поезд. 2. Я написал ему письмо, чтобы напомнить ему о его обещании. 3. Ребенок выбежал навстречу матери. 4. Вы приехали для участия в конференции? 5. Все было сделано для того, чтобы спасти его. 6. Он вызвал машину, чтобы отвезти нас на станцию.

The Complex object

Subject + Predicate + Noun (Pronoun) + Infinitive

I want Mother (her) to help me.

They expect the steamer to leave tonight.

The Complex Object is used after the verbs:

  1. of mental activity: to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to find, to expect, to suppose, to imagine, to feel, to trust, to mean
  2. of declaring: to pronounce, to declare, to report, to teach
  3. denoting wish and intention: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend
  4. denoting feeling and emotion: to like, to dislike, to hate
  5. denoting order and permission: to order, to allow, to suffer, to ask for, to command, to encourage, to forbid. In most cases Passive Infinitive is used here.
  6. Denoting sense perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe. In these cases Bare Infinitive is used.
I knew them to be right. We expect them to arrive soon. I find him (to be) a very clever man. I don’t consider him (to be) an honest man. The doctor pronounced the wound to be a slight one. He intended me to go with him to India. I want you to stop worrying. Tell me what you would like me to do. The captain ordered the cases to be loaded. He asked for the letter to be sent off at once. She asked to be shown the photo. Mr. Domby suffered his daughter to play with Paul. I saw Brown enter the room. I left the blood rush into my cheeks. I saw the fire slowly conquered. He saw Fleur coming.

Compare:

Verb + Infinitive I saw him enter the shop. (the whole action) Verb + Participle I I saw him entering the shop. (the concrete moment)

Notes:

1) The verbs to see and to hear are followed by a clause (not by the Infinitive Construction) when they are not really verbs of sense perception, i.e. when the verb to see means ‘to understand’ and the verb ‘to hear’ – ‘to learn, to be told’ e.g. I saw that she didn’t realize the danger. I heard that he had left for the south.

2) After the verbs to see and to notice the Complex Object is not used with the verb to be, a clause is used in that case: I saw that he was pale.

The Complex Subject

THE INFINITIVE

1. The functions of the infinitive:

(a) as the subject of a sentence. To go on like this was dangerous. (Galsworthy)

(b) as a predicative. Her plan was now to drive to Bath during the night. (Hardy)

(c) as an object.I have never learnt to read or write. (Collins)

2. The forms of the Infinitive:

Active Passive
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to write to be writing to have written to have been writing To be written ----- To have been written ----- I am glad to meet you. He pretended to be sleeping. I'm glad to have seen you," he said. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat, cake and bread and jam.

Only indefinite/Simple form of the Infinitive has the corresponding form in Russian.


The Bare Infinitive

After auxiliary verbs I don’t know her. We shall go.
After modal verbs I can’t do it. You must consult the doctor.
In Complex Object construction I saw him enter the house. I felt my heart jump. but the child was made to obey (Passive Voice)
After the verb let Let’s go. If he calls, let me know.
After the verbs need, dare, make if they are used as modals Need I do the washing up? How dare you call me a liar? What makes you think so?
After had better, would rather/sooner, cannot but He said he would rather stay at home. You had better go there at once. I can’t but think about it.
After than, rather than, but, except I’ll do anything but work with children. Rather than walk for half an hour, I’ll take a taxi.

Match the Russian and English equivalents and REMEMBER!!

Ему трудно угодить. У нее привлекательная внешность. Мне надо вам кое-что сказать. Этим ничего не достигнешь. Ничего не поделаешь. Надо многое сделать. Дом сдается внаем. Кто виноват? Непременно приходите. Единственное, что остается – это ждать. There is nothing to be gained by it. The house is to let. There is nothing left to do but wait. He is hard to please. There is nothing to be done. Be sure to come. She is pleasant to look фею There is much to be done. I have something to tell you. Who is to blame?

Parenthesis

to begin with to name a few to put it simply to be exact to quote
to judge by to put it another name needless to say to say the least to return
to make a long story short to put it briefly to say nothing of so to speak to take an example
to mention only some to put it mildly suffice it to say to sum up to tell the truth

Ex. 1. (A, B) Replace the group of words in bold type by an infinitive.

Model: She was the first lady who left.She was the first (lady) to leave.

1. The manager was the last who leftthe shop. 2.1 was astonished when I heardthat he had left his native town. 3. There was no place where hecould sit. 4. I can't go to the party; I have nothing that Ican wear. 5. He was the first man whoswam the Channel. 6. He was the only one who realizedthe danger.

Ex. 2. (A, B) Combine each of the following parts of sentences into one sentence using an infinitive.

Model: They sent me to University, they wanted me to study law.

They sent me to University to study law.

1. I am buying bread. I want to feed the bird. 2. He opened the door. He intended to go out. 3. He rushed into the burning house. He wanted to save the child. 4. He rang the bell. He wanted to tell us that the dinner was ready. 5. The farmer shot the rifle. He wanted to frighten the birds. 6. He sent his children to his sister's house. He wanted them to watch the television programme. 7. I am saving up. I want to buy a car. 8. I keep my hens in a field grounded by wire netting. I want to protect them against the foxes.

Ex. 3. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "enough" with the Infinitive.

Model: He is clever. He can answer the question.

1. He is clever enough to answer the question. 2. He wasn't strong. He couldn't support the man. 2. It isn't very hot. We can't lie in the sun. 3. The coffee isn't strong. It won't keep us awake. 4. I am quite old. I could be your father. 5. You aren't very old. You can't understand these things. 6. He was very curious. He opened the letter. 7. You are quite thin. You can wear this dress.

Ex. 4. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "too" with the Infinitive.

Model: He is very ill. He can't work today. He is too ill to work today.

1. It is very hot. We can't run. 2. I am rather old. I can't wear this dress. 3. He was nervous. He couldn't speak. 4. I was terrified. I couldn't move. 5. It is very cold. We can't have a swim. 6. He was very snobbish. He wouldn't talk to any of us. 7. It was very dark. We couldn't go out into the garden. 8. It was rather cloudy. We couldn't see the eclipse properly.

Ex. 5. (A, B) Combine the sentences into one sentence using "so as/in order" with the Infinitive.

Model: He took oft his boots. He didn't want to make any noise.

He took off his boots so as/in order not to make any noise.

1. He was playing very softly. He didn't want to disturb anyone. 2. I sent him out of the room. I wanted to discuss his progress with his headmaster. 3. I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer. 4. He sent his children to their aunt's house. He wanted to have some peace. 5. He read only for short periods each day. He didn't want to strain his eyes. 6. They got up very early. They wanted to get to the top of the hill before sunrise. 7. We must keep our gloves on. We don't want to get frostbitten.

Ex. 6. (A, B) Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets.

1. I hope (to see) you soon. 2. We expect (to be) back in two days. 3. He expected (to help) by his friends. 4. I am glad (to do) all the homework yesterday. 5. I am sorry (to break) my pen. 6. I hate (to bother) you, but the students are still waiting (to give) books for their work. 7. He seized every opportunity (to appear) in public: he was so anxious (to talk) about... 8. Is there anything else (to tell) her? I believe she deserves (to know) the state of her sick brother. 9. He began writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. 10. The woman pretended (to read) and (not to hear) the bell. 11. Perhaps it would upset her (to tell) the truth of the matter. 12. The only sound (to hear) was the snoring of grandfather in the bedroom.


opeka-i-popechit-vo-v-gp-patronazh-nad-nedees-mi.html
opel-ceni-na-chip-tyuning-opel.html
    PR.RU™