One (ones) – заместитель ранее стоящего существительного. Переводится тем существительным, которое оно заменяет, или опускается.

Model:

The method is а conventional оnе. Этот метод общепринят (является общепринятым методом).

Примечание 1. One с предшествующим определенным артиклем (the one) или указательным местоимением (that one) и форма множественного числа ones выполняют в предложении только функцию заместителя существительного.

Примечание 2. Если после one стоят определительное придаточное предложение или определительный причастный оборот, то one является местоимением-заместителем существительного.

Model:

Тhе latter method differs radically from the оnе теntiоned аbоvе. Последний метод значительно отличается от того (метода), который упоминался (от уnоминаемого) выше.

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.

1. Collisions between unlike molecules are the important ones. 2. The result, like the one just described, is in no way surprising. 3. An electron tends to collide with a molecule coming in the opposite direction rather than with one travelling in the same direction. 4. The procedure is straight-forward and is the one followed throughout the experiment. 5. The assertion is one which can be justified by a detailed proof. 6. These conditions are known as the most important ones for the development of a plant. 7. This investigation is of greater importance for the development of our science than the one mentioned above. 8. The Siberian summer is one of dry atmosphere and brilliant sunshine. 9. The primary root is the one which is formed directly from part of the embryo of the seed, while the secondary ones are branches of it. 10. Give me a book on zoology, please. Which one? The one which is lying near the thermometer. 11. As a result of these reactions, earlier existing molecules disappear and new ones take their place. 12. If a dividing amoeba produces two daughter cells of different sizes, the larger one grows more slowly. 13. Even the fastest of the heavy molecules move slowly compared with the light ones. 14. The steady state of the gas is supposed to be one which gives no one direction preference over another. 15. The new devices have a number of advantages over the old ones.

3. One – обобщенно-личное местоимение

Обобщенно-личное местоимение one выполняет в предложении функции подлежащего и дополнения.

А. Если местоимение one - подлежащее, то при переводе оно опускается, а сказуемое передается неопределенно-личной формой глагола.

One believes that... – считают, что. . . one must expect that … – следует ожидать, что…
One knows that … – известно, что. . . one сап easily understand that - легко можно понять, что. . .

Иногда one удобно переводить личным местоимением мы (реже кто-то, кто-нибудь) или существительным человек, люди с обобщенным значением.

Model:

Тhе similarity опе fiпds in this case is not accidental. Сходство, которое мы находим в данном случае, не случайно.

Примечание 1. Если в первой части сложного предложения подлежащим является обобщенно-личное местоимение one, то во второй его части подлежащим может быть местоимение hе, которое приобретает обобщенно-личное значение.

Model:

If one keeps in mind these figures, he easily understands why. . . Если помнить (.мы помним) эти цифры, то легко понять (понимаешь, мы легко nонимаем), почему. . .

Запомните значения словосочетаний с подлежащим оnе, представляющих трудности при переводе:



One mау well (ask) - есть все основания (спросить, задать вопрос) one is faced with the difficulty (problem) – возникает трудность (встает задача)
One cannot fail (to do it) - нельзя не (сделать этого)

Б. Обобщенно-личное местоимение one в функции дополнения или совсем не переводится или передается косвенным падежом от личного местоимения мы (нам, нас), реже существительным - человек, люди с обобщенным значением.

Models:

Тhе new device enables опе to examine the process more thoroughly. Новый прибор позволяет (нам) более тщательно исследовать этот процесс.
It is not easy to convince one in the reality of these facts. Нелегко убедить человека в реальности этих фактов.

Примечание 2. Особую трудность представляет для перевода глагол involve - включать, вовлекать. С последующим местоимением one его рекомендуется переводить влечь за собой, вовлекать человека (нас).

Model:

These problems involve оnе in still more complicated studies. Эти вопросы влекут за собой (вовлекают нас в) еще более сложные исследования.

Запомните значения наиболее употребительных глаголов, после которых используется обобщенно-личное местоимение оnе в функции дополнения:

allow – позволять make – заставлять (поверить, заключить)
convince – убеждать permit – позволять
enable - давать возможность take one (time, effort) - требовать (время, усилие и пр.)
give – давать lead one (to believe, conclude)- приводить к (мысли, заключению и пр.), заставлять
involve one in - влечь за собой, вовлекать человека (нас) в

Exercise 3. Translate into Russian.

A.

1. One should take the precautions mentioned. 2. One believes that the procedure described above will simplify the experiment. 3. One may well ask why the two sheets of paper fly apart. 4. One is to make a lot of experiments to make sure that his observation is adequate. 5. When making experiments of this kind one is faced with still another difficulty. 6. One cannot fail to observe that the advance in technique grows more rapid. 7. Instead of numbers one might use symbols for numbers - algebra instead of arithmetic. 8. One may well ask why the numbers b and a are not identical, since they arise from much the same kind of process. 9. If one wishes to know whether or not a certain compound is present, one simply looks for a peak from that compound which would be expected in an otherwise clear region of the spectrum. 10. To know how a plant grows one should study the structure of the plant. 11. One can prevent the evaporation of moisture by means of the method which will check further loss of water. 12. One can find any book on botany in that library. 13. This is a very long distance if one takes into consideration their small size. 14. One must distinguish between processes due to the effect of biological clocks and the biochemical mechanisms of the clocks themselves. 15. By regulating the alternation of light and darkness, one can obtain three generations of sheep in two years. 16. When one says that a vessel is empty, it is not really true for the vessel is full of air. 17. One can improve the structure of the soil by proper treatment. 18. One should not forget that temperature plays an especially important role at the time of developing the root system. 19. One must always be careful when operating this machine. 20. To understand what laser is one has to understand how light is generated.



B.

1. It takes one much time to make all the necessary calculations. 2. The evidence provided by the author makes one believe that his hypothesis rests on sound foundation. 3. The figures presented involve one in the problems of modern statistics. 4. The computer allows one to make calculations in a short time. 5. Fast molecules do not diffuse through the rest as fast as their speed would lead one to expect. 6. His method permits one to get good results. 7. This led one to regard this problem as very complex.

4. Слово-заместитель that (those)

Слово-заместитель that (those) заменяет ранее стоящее существительное и переводится тем существительным, которое оно замещает, или опускается.

Model:

The atomic weight of oxygen is greater than that of carbon. Атомный вес водорода больше (атомного веса) углерода.

Exercise 4. Translate into Russian.

1. The electron temperature is much greater than that of the gas as a whole. 2. Unlike molecules can be determined by methods like those used earlier for like molecules. 3. The diameter of Neptunium is four times greater than that of the Earth. 4. The atomic weight of sulphur is twice as large as that of oxygen. 5. Suppose that the total volume of the gas is k times that of the molecule. 6. Molecules moving from hot regions to cool carry more energy than those moving in the reverse direction. 7. The tесhniquе used has some advantages over that suggested bу Раlm. 8. Тhе resu1ts are in good agreement with those calculated from the mobility data of Green. 9. Ву comparing actual strength of diffusion with that to bе expected if the molecules were elastic spheres, the value of s саn bе found. 10. Carbon dioxide cannot support life, its properties being different from those of the oxygen which it contains. 11. There are many kinds of potential energy besides that due to the force of gravity. 12. Two other very suitable temperatures are always generally available, those of melting ice and of boiling water - the former, constant under all conditions, the latter depending on the atmospheric pressure. 13. Molecules of light gases move quicker than those of denser gases. 14. There is a great difference between the functions of the leaves and those of the roots. 15. The soil of the South contains usually less moisture than that of the North. 16. Outdoor planting differs from that under glass in that the seed is not always soaked before planting. 17. The reproductive and life cycle of ferns is similar to that of the vascular plants just described. 18. Brown and Steward found that although the production of infective particles was inhibited, infectious RNA could be demonstrated at a level approaching that of control infected cells. 19. The mixture is identical with that mentioned above. 20. The minimum temperature for germination of the seed is much higher than that required for the general crop plants.

5. Слово-заместитель this (these)


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